World Food Books is a book shop in Melbourne, Australia.
Founded in 2010, World Food Books is a book service dedicated to the presentation of a rotating, hand-selection of quality international art and design journals, artists’ monographs, exhibition catalogues, artists’ editions, collected writings and printed ephemera.
Presenting new titles alongside rare and out-of-print publications spanning the fields of contemporary art, modern art, cultural theory, photography, film, poetry, fiction, fashion, architecture, interior design, typography, illustration, politics and much between, World Food Books wishes to encourage active and thoughtful reading, looking, writing, publishing, and exchanging of art and design press, both contemporary and historical.
As well as our book shop, located in Melbourne's historical Nicholas Building, all of our inventory is available internationally via our online mail-order service. We also have outposts at MUMA (Monash University Museum of Art) and Westspace, both also in Melbourne.
World Food Books semi-regularly co-ordinates "Occasions", a program of exhibits and events at the bookshop and in partnership with other hosts (such as museums and art galleries) that develop out of the activities, relationships and content of the bookshop itself.
World Food Books
The Nicholas Building
Studio 19, Level 3
37 Swanston Street
FRI 12-7 PM
SAT 12-4 PM
& OPEN BY APPOINTMENT
MAIL ORDER RUNS EVERY DAY
World Food Books
PO Box 435
Theory / Essay
Architecture / Interior
Graphic Design / Typography
Fiction / Poetry
Film / Video
Sculpture / Installation
Performance / Dance / Theater
Sound / Music
Group Shows / Collections
Illustration / Graphic Art
Ceramics / Glass
Italian Radical Design / Postmodernism
"Various Works 1986 - 1999"
02 February 16 - September 10, 2016
Various works 1986 - 1999, from two houses, from the collections of John Nixon, Sue Cramer, Kerrie Poliness, Peter Haffenden and Phoebe Haffenden.
Including: Geometry of Cakes (various shelves), 1993; Poor People’s Law (black and white plate), 1993; White Absence (glasses, ruler, set square, silver spoon, silver ladel with skin photograph and wooden cubes), 1990-1996; Exploitation of the Dead (grey and red star painting, wooden painting, black spoon with red table, red plate), 1984-1990; Money and Zeros (zero tie, paintings made for friends in Australia (Sue, John, Kerrie), numbers painting), 1991-1992; Words - Slogans (various t-shirts) - “they talk about the death of art...help! someone is trying to kill me”, “my sweet little lamb”, “work is a disease - Karl Marx”; Various artist books, catalogues, monographs, videos; Poster from exhibition Insulting Anarchy; "Circular" Croatian - Australian edition; Artist book by Vlado Martek (Dostoyevsky); more.
Thanks to Mladen Stilinović and Branka Stipančić.
Curated by Nic Tammens
March 26 - April 4, 2015
B.Wurtz works from a basement studio in his home on Manhattan’s Lower East Side.
This local fact is attested to by the plastic shopping bags and newsprint circulars that appear in his work. As formal objects, they don’t make loud claims about their origins but nonetheless transmit street addresses and places of business from the bottom of this long thin island. Like plenty of artists, Wurtz is affected by what is local and what is consumed. His work is underpinned by this ethic. It often speaks from a neighborhood or reads like the contents of a hamper:
“BLACK PLUMS $1.29 lb.”
“USDA Whole Pork Shoulder Picnic 99c lb.”
“RITE AID Pharmacy, with us it’s personal.”
“H. Brickman & Sons.”
“Sweet Yams 59c lb."
Most of the work in this exhibition was made while the artist was in residence at Dieu Donne, a workshop dedicated to paper craft in Midtown. Here Wurtz fabricated assemblages with paper and objects that are relatively lightweight, with the intention that they would be easily transportable to Australia. This consideration isn’t absolute in Wurtz’s work, but was prescriptive for making the current exhibition light and cheap. Packed in two boxes, these works were sent from a USPS post office on the Lower East Side and delivered to North Melbourne by Australia Post.
Wurtz appears courtesy of Metro Pictures, New York.
Thanks to Rob Halverson, Joshua Petherick, Sari de Mallory, Matt Hinkley, Helen Johnson, Fayen d'Evie, Ask Kilmartin, Lisa Radon, Ellena Savage, Yale Union, and "Elizabeth".
December 15 - January 20, 2014
The presentation of John Nixon's archive offered a rare showcase of this extensive collection of the artist's own publications, catalogues, posters, ephemera, editions and more, from the mid 1980s onwards, alongside a selection of his artworks.
Organized by John Nixon, Joshua Petherick and Matt Hinkley.
at Minerva, Sydney (curated by Joshua Petherick and Matt Hinkley)
November 15 - December 20, 2014
Lupo Borgonovo, Janet Burchill & Jennifer McCamley,
Lewis Fidock, HR Giger, Piero Gilardi, Veit Laurent Kurz,
Cinzia Ruggeri, Michael E. Smith, Lucie Stahl, Daniel Weil, Wols
“...It contained seven objects. The slender fluted bone, surely formed for flight, surely from the wing of some large bird. Three archaic circuitboards, faced with mazes of gold. A smooth white sphere of baked clay. An age-blackened fragment of lace. A fingerlength segment of what she assumed was bone from a human wrist, grayish white, inset smoothly with the silicon shaft of a small instrument that must once have ridden flush with the surface of the skin - but the thing’s face was seared and blackened.”
William Gibson, “Count Zero”, 1986
"Autumn Projects Archive"
Curated by Liza Vasiliou
March 6 - March 15, 2014
World Food Books, in conjunction with the Virgin Australia Melbourne Fashion Festival 2014, presented the Autumn Projects archive, consisting of a selection of early examples in Australian fashion with a particular interest in collecting designers and labels from the period beginning in the 1980’s, who significantly influenced the discourse of Australian Fashion.
Curated by Liza Vasiliou, the exhibition provided a unique opportunity to view pieces by designers Anthea Crawford, Barbara Vandenberg, Geoff Liddell and labels CR Australia, Covers, Jag along with early experimental collage pieces by Prue Acton and Sally Browne’s ‘Fragments’ collection, suspended throughout the functioning World Food Books shop in Melbourne.
presented by CENTRE FOR STYLE
November 14, 2013
"Hey Blinky, you say chic, I say same"
H.B. Peace is a clothing collaboration between great friends Blake Barns and Hugh Egan Westland. Their pieces explore the divergences between 'character’ and ‘personality’ in garments....etc
Special Thanks to Joshua Petherick and Matt Hinkley of WFB and Gillian Mears
and a Very Special Thank you to Audrey Thomas Hayes for her shoe collaboration.
Janet Burchill & Jennifer McCamley
May 10 - June 8, 2013
The first of our occasional exhibitions in the World Food Books office/shop space in Melbourne, "Aesthetic Suicide" presented a body of new and older works together by artists Janet Burchill & Jennifer McCamley, including videos, prints, a wall work, and publications.
During shop open hours videos played every hour, on the hour.
Hardcover, 248 pages, 25.4 x 25.4 cm
Published by Fuel / London
$75.00 - In stock -
Expanded, new edition!
The first edition of The Music Library, published in 2005 and now out of print, brought together the designs of more than 325 record sleeves and relevant information about these rare and elusive albums. Quickly becoming known as the music library "bible," The Music Library represented a valuable reference and also sparked a resurgence of interest in the subject over the last ten years, with many new library labels and recordings coming to light. Library music--also known as source or mood music--was made for use in film, TV, advertising and radio. It was given to TV channels and producers who needed cheap, signature music for animations, advertisements and television programs. Never commercially available for sale to the public, this music was pressed from the 1950s onwards in limited quantities, and then sent directly for use in production houses and radio stations. These LPs were intended for purpose and function, not for pop charts, and as a result they look and sound like nothing else. Without the usual music industry constraints, the record sleeve designers had almost complete freedom of expression, with unprecedented results.
This new and expanded edition of The Music Library contains twice the content of the original book, featuring 625 rare sleeves from 230 music library companies of the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s. The amazing cover designs of over 100 newly discovered library albums are beautifully reproduced (alongside all the sleeves contained in the first book) and accompanied by exhaustive, updated captions.
1st English edition, Out of print title / Used*,
Published by The MIT Press / Massachusetts
$150.00 - In stock -
First english edition of this long out-of-print major hardcover monograph on Bruno Munari. Published by The MIT Press in 1987, this was the first comprehensive book on his work, and was itself designed by Munari! Clothbound, in original dust-jacket, protected in plastic sleeve.
Foreward by Andrea Branzi.
One of the last surviving members of the futurist generation, Bruno Munari has been the enfant terrible of Italian art and design for most of this century. Munari was born in 1907 in Milan and it was against the active background of futurism that his artistic experiments developed, but his mechanical fantasies, practical inventions, and didactic writings continue to be enjoyed by a public that has no memory of Balla, Prampolini, and Marinetti.
Munari's 40-odd books, ranging from futurist manifestoes to design manuals to children's books, have been widely read in many languages. But this book, itself designed by Munari, is the first comprehensive account of his total achievement. Here are the Unreadable Books (that told stories through the possibilities of typography, papermaking, and binding), Traveling Sculptures, Fossils of the Year 2000, Theoretical Reconstruction of Imaginary Objects, Original Xerographies, Negative Positives, and the famous Useless Machines of the 1930s (constructions for wagging the tails of lazy dogs, predicting dawn, making sobs sound musical) as well as numerous other works, some published for the first time.
The hundreds of illustrations, many in full color, recreate Munari's relentless inventiveness, his love of irony, chance and humor, his intensely experimental orientation and constantly fresh approach to new technologies and materials.
Aldo Tanchis lives in Milan where he is currently collaborating with the advertising agency Pirella Göttsche. He is the author of The Anomalous Art of Bruno Munari.
Softcover, 136 pages, 26 x 21.3 cm
Published by Koenig Books / London
$49.00 - In stock -
Chaimowicz is increasingly influential for younger generations of artists, his work explores the space between public and private, design and art, and includes painting, sculpture and photography with prototypes for everyday objects, furnishings and wallpapers.
A choreography of objects, images and colours, in his Serpentine Gallery installation the artist draws upon ideas of memory and place. This responds to the architecture, natural surroundings and history of the Serpentine which was converted from a 1930s park café to a gallery in 1970.
This unique hybrid between a catalogue and artist’s book is a personal exhibition journal that takes the form of a French cahier – a ‘book within a book’ which comprises a visual index of technical drawings and photographs relating to recent projects. Wrapped in a dust jacket featuring a new wallpaper design and including a number of installation and archival images.
Designed by Fraser Muggeridge studio and featuring texts by Michael Bracewell, Mason Leaver-Yap, and Stuart Morgan.
Published on the occasion of the exhibition Marc Camille Chaimowicz: An Autumn Lexicon at Serpentine Sackler Gallery, London, 29 September – 20 November 2016.
Softcover, 122 pages, 31 x 26 cm
1st edition, Out of print title / used*,
Published by Quadrangle Books / New York
$100.00 - In stock -
At the start of the 1970's, at the very beginning of renowned photographer Oberto Gili's professional career (Architectural Digest, Vogue, House & Garden, Town & Country), he moved to Milan to work for L’Esperto, a publishing company...
"... to shoot and produce a book that was to be called 'Crazy, Mad, Outrageous Interiors'. I traveled around the world for a year working on this book. L’Esperto dropped the project, but Norma Skurka, The New York Times interiors editor those days, took over and Quadrangle Books published the book in 1972. It was called 'Underground Interiors'."
First soft cover edition of this cult classic interior design book - the only one of its kind. This lavishly illustrated book features the deluxe photography of eclectic and inspired domestic settings from all over the world c. early 1970s: "Surrealist Interiors", "Environments", "Radical Chic", "Pop Culture", "Space Age Habitations"... An incredible piece of interior design history.
Includes the living spaces of Karl Lagerfeld, Derek Jarman, Zandra Rhodes, Marina Lante della Rovere, Nanda Vigo, Alan Buchsbaum, Julie Christie, to name only a handful.
"Not just another book on interior decoration with look-alike rooms, Underground Interiors is a fantastic mind-expanding experience into contemporary life styles."
Softcover (ring-bound), 368 pages, 24 x 33 cm
Published by Spector Books / Leipzig
$86.00 - In stock -
The mid-1960s witnessed a boom in underground and self-published works in West Germany. Hectographs, mimeographs and offset printing not only allowed for the production of small, low-cost print runs, but also promoted a unique aesthetic. Using wild mock-ups, these messianic amateurs combined typescript aesthetics, handwriting, scribbled drawings, assemblages of collaged visuals, porn photos, snapshots and comic strips, forging a new, wildly free, sensibility in the process. This book is the first to present the underground and self-published works that came out of West Germany in such depth, while also showing the international context in which they emerged – not as an anecdotal history but as an attempt to tap into the aesthetic cosmos of the Do-It-Yourself rebellion. Insomuch, Under the Radar also challenges us to take a new look at the current boom in independent publishing, the risograph aesthetic and more.
An incredible collection and valuable volume for anyone interested in underground publishing history!
Softcover, 156 pages, 291 x 291 cm
Out of print title / used / very good
Published by Pomegranate Artbooks / California
$65.00 - Out of stock
The first two volumes chronicling the unique art and design of Roger Dean met with huge critical and popular success. Views (1975) went straight to number one in the Sunday Times bestseller list and went on to sell over a million copies. Magnetic Storm (1984) sold over 650,000 copies. These new editions, reworked to accompany the publication of the third book in the trilogy, Dragon's Dream, showcase the instantly recognizable work of Roger Dean.
Views showcases the first seven years of Roger Dean's work after his graduation from the Royal College of Art in 1968. It includes paintings and graphics; branding such as the Yes typography and the first Virgin Records logo; groundbreaking stage sets; and album art including iconic early Yes covers such as the award-winning Tales From Topographic Oceans. The new edition streamlines the original square format and retains the combination of concept sketches and brilliantly displayed finished work. Featuring a new foreword, revised typography, and graphic openers and identifying icons, Views showcases and celebrates the art that defined an era.
Roger Dean is internationally acclaimed as an artist and designer whose evocative and visionary images created a new genre. Made popular through the medium of album covers and posters, his work has sold in excess of 100 million copies. Roger became widely known in the 1970s for his album cover designs for Yes—including the classic logo now in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London—and a poll of Rolling Stone readers selected five of his designs in the top twenty best album covers of all time.
2013, English / Portugese
Softcover, 224 pages (colour ill.), 185 × 230 mm
Published by Bom Dia Boa Tarde Boa Noite / Berlin
$40.00 - In stock -
Designer, poet, musician, artist and author, Rogério Duarte is a central figure of the Tropicalia movement. His influence on imagery and aesthetics of this movement is presented in this first publication in both English and Portuguese. Initiated by artist Mariana Castillo Deball and designer Manuel Raeder, and developed in a four-year exchange with Rogério Duarte and published by BOM DIA BOA TARDE BOA NOITE.
With texts by Rogério Duarte, Narlan Matos Teixeira, Max Jorge Hinderer Cruz, Mariana Castillo Deball, Manuel Raeder
Softcover, 64 pages, 12 x 19 cm
Published by Sternberg Press / Berlin
$16.00 - In stock -
Three interconnected palimpsest essays recount (1) the backstory of a “meta” font recently updated by Dexter Sinister and used to typeset the Contemporary Condition book series, (2) a broad history of the rationalization of letterforms that considers the same typeface from “a higher point of disinterest,” and (3) a pending proposal for a sundial designed to operate in parallel physical and digital realms. Along the way they contemplate the ambiguous nature of our shared idea of time itself.
The Contemporary Condition series edited by Geoff Cox and Jacob Lund, Volume 06
Copublished by Sternberg Press, Aarhus University and ARoS Art Museum
Design by Dexter Sinister
Hardcover (w. dust jacket), 400 pages, 24.2 x 29 cm
Published by Prestel / Munich
$130.00 - In stock -
The incredible, comprehensive Koloman Moser reference book!
During his short career, Koloman Moser became a towering figure in Viennese culture. His varied work in interior and graphic design, furniture, textiles, jewellery, metalwork, glass and earthenware helped usher in the modern era.
This book surveys the entirety of Moser's oeuvre. It examines his work as a graphic designer and his involvement with the Vienna Secession, with special focus given to his role as an illustrator for the journal Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring). Moser's forays into textile design and ceramic work are also introduced. The book features his designs for the Vienna Secession, Thonet Brothers and the Mautner family, among others that characterise his early modern style. The book also explores Moser's seminal role as a founding member of the Vienna Workshops, along with architect Josef Hoffman and patron Fritz Waerndorfer. Included are many reproductions of Moser's masterpieces, including the window of the Steinhof Chapel, his exhibition posters, postage stamps and currency and elegant samples from his design portfolio, "The Source."
Softcover, 304 pages, 24 × 17 cm
Published by Hyphen Press / London
$55.00 - In stock -
Anarchy was a journal of ideas published in London in the 1960s. Although its contributors were many and diverse, Anarchy was essentially the creation of one person, Colin Ward (1924–2010). With this journal, and throughout his work as a writer, editor, and activist, Ward proposed the idea that anarchist principles of mutual aid and autonomous organization outside a centralized state can be achieved here and now. This book gives attention for the first time to the covers of Anarchy, designed mostly by Rufus Segar. These little-known works provided the enticing entry to the plain text pages of the journal. The book reproduces all of the covers in a sequence that suggests, incidentally, something of the history of graphic design in Britain in those years. And it goes beyond the images, with an array of supporting texts that give a full picture of Anarchy and its context.
Daniel Poyner, Introduction
The covers of Anarchy
Raphael Samuel, ‘Utopian sociology’
Daniel Poyner, A conversation with Rufus Segar
Richard Hollis, ‘Anarchy and the 1960s’
Robin Kinross, An index to Anarchy
‘Autonomy’ doesn’t try to present Segar as some great innovator of graphic design. He wasn’t one and makes no claim to be. What the book sets out to do, and it succeeds magnificently without visual or verbal hyperbole, is to enrich and add nuance to our understanding of a 1960s graphic landscape we might think we know inside out by acquainting us with unfamiliar work that provided an important forward-thinking publication with its public face. Segar believed in the journal’s cause and 40 years later, he reports, he and his wife Sheila are still anarchists.
Rick Poynor, Creative Review, January 2013
Softcover, 78 pages (w. fold-outs), 42 x 30 cm
1st Swiss edition, Out of print title / used*,
Published by Edition C / Zürich
$140.00 - Out of stock
With an introduction by Clive Baker and numerous texts by HR Giger as well as texts by Fritz Billeter and Simon Vinkenoog and a tribute from Salvador Dali.
"The "Necronomicon" is a legendary magical book that is kept in inaccessible places only in a few, incompletely preserved specimens because it could have disastrous consequences if it fell into the wrong hands. It was written down around 730 AD in Yemen by the legendary Abdul Al Azred. It is said to tell of things and events that took place in the gray age, and illustrations of uncanny creatures lurking in the depths of the earth and the seas, one day destroying mankind and striking the world.
Al Azred's "Necronomicon" is a kind of museum of the most wonderful abominations and perversions. The well-known writer HP Lovecraft was the first to report in his "Cthulhu" mythology of this work. Many other science fiction and fantasy writers have quoted this fictional work time and again, but it has only become a visual reality in "HR Giger's Necronomicon"!"
"Giger always opens up new approaches to the origins of our psyche," writes Clive Baker in his foreword. "He is planning for us to go, encouraged by the knowledge that others have gone before this path, and only a few artists are able to give such impulses, and if we follow Giger, we are initially afraid of our mental health. And quickly recognize that the supposed new territory has countless stations that are connected with our familiar life. For, after all, we are no strangers: Giger points the direction into the world in which we must return, where we pledge our pledge, to pay the tithes which we owe. Giger's world is the place of our own taboos, and only our own disregard makes him appear frightening, sullen, "alien" (alien). (...) Giger's work calls us to the common ground of the unconscious, where, though we sometimes alienate ourselves from it, we are never really strangers. In other words, HR Giger's fantastic art is calling us home."
Beginning with a hommage from Salvador Dali, the first in this series of oversized and visually overwhelming volumes takes us through the early history of one of the most brilliant fantasy artists of the century. From his "Passegen" series, his work for theatre, posters, album artwork, environments, personal works, is designs for Alejandro Jodorowsky's DUNE, and much more, all beautifully reproduced in full-colour and black and white, full-bleed spreads, including fold-out pages. These Giger folio books have become very desirable, collectable editions in their various printings around the world, the series encompassing the work of one of the world's most unique and influential visionaries.
This is the first Swiss edition, published by Edition C.
2013, English / German
Hardcover, 660 pages, 13 × 23.5 cm
Published by Edition Patrick Frey / Zürich
$165.00 - In stock -
HR Giger worked in the Shepperton Studios near London from February to November 1978, creating the figures and sets for the film Alien (1979) directed by Ridley Scott. The film became an international success, earning Giger an Oscar. In the transcribed Alien Diaries, published here for the first time as a facsimile, HR Giger describes his work in the studios. He writes, sketches, and takes photographs with his Polaroid SX70. With brutal honesty, sarcasm and occasional despair, Giger describes what it is like working for the film industry and how he struggles against all odds — be it the stinginess of producers or the sluggishness of his staff — to see his designs become reality. The Alien Diaries (in German transcription with an English translation) show a little-known personal side of the artist HR Giger and offer an unusual, detailed glimpse into the making of a movie classic through the eyes of a Swiss artist. The book contains almost completely unpublished material, including drawings, Polaroids showing the monster coming to life, and several still shots from the plentiful film material that Giger took in Shepperton.
Softcover, 76 pages, 29.7 x 29.7 cm
2nd 1994 print, out of print title / used*,
Published by Morpheus International / US
$65.00 - Out of stock
"Giger's Alien provides a complete record of the months and months of painstaking work that resulted in two hours of terrifying celluloid. Sketches, original paintings, photographs of scenery and the Alien under construction and scenes from the film are linked by Giger's detailed diary of his thoughts and actions at the time".
First published in 1979, here the Morpheus International second printing, "Giger's Alien" is a visually stunning and wonderfully insightful book for any fan of the art of H.R. Giger or in the production of science-fiction.
Softcover, 96 pages, 24 x 26 cm
1st edition, Out of print title / used*,
Published by Vermilion / London
$25.00 - In stock -
Published in 1983, The Blue Book compiles an amazing, diverse, all-colour collection of erotic fantasies through the eyes of over 100 of the world's most successful artists of the early 1980s, including Andy Warhol, Harumi Yamaguchi, Richard Bernstein, Carol Lay, Robert Blue, Lou Brooks, Robert Grossman, Mick Haggerty, George Hardie, Bush Hollyhead, Allen Jones, John Kacere, Katsu, Mel Odom, Neon Park, Gary Panter, Mel Ramos, Pater Sato, Todd Schorr, Tom Wesselmann, Tadanori Yokoo, George Stavrinos, Olivia, Nancy Kintisch and many more!
$20.00 - In stock -
F.R.DAVID is a typographical journal, edited by Will Holder, dealing with the organisation of reading and writing in contemporary art practises. This 13th issue of F.R.DAVID is edited with Riet Wijnen, and has its origins in her Registry of Pseudonyms, an online database which accounts for who is who and why who is who. ‘Inverted Commas’ follows ‘pseudonym’ through names, naming, bodies, brains, self, author, other, reader, labour.
Includes: Michael Asher, Joan Didion, Harun Farocki, Sven Lütticken, Lucy Lippard, Barbara Guest, A.H. Nijhoff, Will Holder, Pauline Oliveros, and many more.
Softcover, 67 pages, 29.5 × 21 cm
1st edition, Out of print title / used*,
Published by Electa / Milan
$400.00 - In stock -
Here it is - the incredibly rare FIRST ever Memphis book, published by Electa in Italy in 1981!
First edition. Wrapped in a fold-out front and back cover design by Marco Zanini, this very early document of Memphis is almost entirely a visual folio of reproductions of the original drawings by Martine Bedin, Andrea Branzi, Aldo Cibic, Michele De Lucchi, Nathalie du Pasquier, Michael Graves, Hans Hollein, Arata Isozaki, Shiro Kuramata, Alessandro Mendini, Paola Navone, Peter Shire, Ettore Sottsass, George Sowden, Matteo Thun, Masanori Umeda and Marco Zanini. Along with an early essay by Barbara Radice (in both Italian and English), this catalogue tells the very beginning of the Memphis story through the original drawings of furniture, objects, lighting and patterns compiled from international architects, artists and designers. The story goes that Ettore Sottsass and his core group encouraged international architects and designers to send their concepts and drawings for new designs for domestic furnishings. In viewing their results through this selection of the drawings, it is clear there was a global design revolution happening and Memphis was about to produce prototypes of these designs that would shock and change the world forever.
A rare opportunity to own this important publication of design history.
Note: This book was briefly re-issued in 2009 in a limited edition - this is however the first printing from 1981.